katosvanidze18851907’s diary

知恵袋、okwaveで質問した回答したものをコピーして載せるだけのブログ。書いた文章は 自分の財産なので。つまりはこのブログは記録する倉庫の役割り。アクセス数やランキングは付録なので興味はない。物事、この世の深淵、本質、真理とは? 全ては知識と文章能力が解決してくれる 知識を付けて盲点を無くしていけば、。ゴールは現状の外に。 現状の外にゴールを作れば未来の記憶が作られるが、現状の内側にゴールを設定すれば、我々は過去にしばれる、過去 の延長線上を生きることに 過去からの脱するに未来に対してイメージ、臨場感を

マリア信仰についての知識の確認。

精霊信仰を聖者信仰という形に

変えた温存しているのがカトリック


プロテスタントは、


https://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/3676597.html


https://ja.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/マリア崇拝


マリア崇拝(マリアすうはい、Mariolatry、Marianismo)とは、聖母マリアを崇拝する宗教的行為。キリスト教では禁じられている。

これは、カトリック教会でもマリア崇敬とは区別し、禁じている[1]。しかし、一部のプロテスタントの教派は、カトリック教会におけるマリア崇敬を「崇拝」していると捉え、批判している。[2][3][4][5]

目次 [非表示] 

1 「マリア崇拝」(Mariolatry)の用語

2 カトリック教会

3 フェミニズム

4 脚注

5 関連項目

「マリア崇拝」(Mariolatry)の用語[編集]

18世紀及び19世紀において、様々なプロテスタント教派が「マリア崇拝」(Mariolatry[6])という用語を使い始めた。この用語はカトリック教会におけるマリア崇敬、聖公会アングロ-カトリック主義、そして東方正教会における聖母マリアへの信心業の実践について言及したものである。この用語を使用するプロテスタント各教派の見解によると、マリアに対して極端に注意を払うことは、神に対する崇拝から道を逸っているばかりでなく、実際に偶像崇拝に接触するものだとしている[7][8]。 この傾向は、時と共に様々な方向に向かっていき、その間に一部のプロテスタント教派は、マリアに注意に対する彼らの態度を時々和らげ、その他の教派は、21世紀において、マリアへの態度について、ますます反対の立場を強めていった。その例として、2006年5月のイギリスにおける「ウォルシンガムの聖母」の祝典の間、聖公会カトリック教会は、「聖母行列」を行ったが、これにプロテスタントは、「カトリック教会は、偶像崇拝とマリア崇拝(Mariolatry)」と書かれた看板を持ち、野次を飛ばした[9][10][11]。

カトリック教会[編集]

ローマ教皇を最高指導者とするカトリック教会は、以下のように分類し、三位一体の神に捧げられる礼拝(ラトレイア・Latria 神礼拝)を、聖母マリアに対して捧げる事はマリア崇拝として禁じている。

hyperdulia 被造物の中で最も崇高なものとしての聖母マリアへの崇敬

dulia 聖人崇敬 

cultus civilis 長上への尊敬


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marianismo


For veneration of Mary, mother of Jesus, see Roman Catholic Mariology.


Marianismo comes from beliefs about Mary, mother of Jesus, providing a supposed ideal of true femininity.

Marianismo is an aspect of the female gender role in the machismo of Hispanic American folk culture. It is the veneration for feminine virtues like purity and moral strength. For example, it represents the "virgin" aspect of the dichotomy. Evelyn Stevens states:

[I]t teaches that women are semi divine, morally superior to and spiritually stronger than men."[1]

The ideas within marianismo include those of feminine passivity and sexual purity. There is power in marianismo that stems from the female ability to produce life.

This term derives from Catholic belief in Mary, mother of Jesus, as both a virgin and a mother. According to the New Testament, she was a virgin when she gave birth to Jesus. She was eventually given the title Theotokos "Mother of God" in Christianity and thus became a subject of veneration and admiration. From this is derived the idea that an ideal woman should be spiritually immaculate and eternally self-giving.

This ideal woman is emotional, kind, instinctive, whimsical, docile, compliant, vulnerable, and unassertive. She has a higher status in the community if she has children (especially male children) and is a caring mother. She is also pious and observant of religious law.

Contents [hide] 

1 Origin of the term

1.1 Evelyn Stevens' work

1.2 Other literature

1.2.1 Critique of Stevens

2 Feminist perspective

3 In the media

4 See also

5 References

6 Bibliography

7 External links

Origin of the term[edit]

"Marianismo" originally referred to the devotion to Mary (Spanish: María). The term was first used by political scientist Evelyn Stevens in her 1973 essay "Marianismo: The Other Face of Machismo". It was in direct response to the male word machismo and was meant to explain the phenomenon in Latin America in which women were either "saints or whores.".[2] It is the supposed ideal of true femininity that women are supposed to live up to—i.e. being modest, virtuous, and sexually abstinent until marriage—and then being faithful and subordinate to their husbands. In essence, marianismo is the female counterpart to machismo, and as such, probably originated during the time of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.[3]

Evelyn Stevens' work[edit]

In her essay, Stevens argues that marianismo and machismo are complements, and that one cannot exist without the other. She also states in her argument that the characteristics of the ideal woman are the same throughout the culture when she claims that “popular acceptance of a stereotype of the ideal woman [is] ubiquitous in every social class. There is near universal agreement on what a ‘real woman’ is like and how she should act”.[3] In marianismo, it is the bad woman who enjoys premarital sex, whereas the good woman only experiences it as a marriage requirement. Marianismo dictates the day-to-day lives of Latin American women. Stevens believes that marianismo will not disappear anytime soon because Latin American women still cling to the role.

Other literature[edit]

In their book The Maria Paradox: How Latinas Can Merge Old World Traditions with New World Self-esteem (1996, G. P. Putnam), Rosa Maria Gil & Carmen Inoa Vazquez credit Stevens with introducing the concept of marianismo, citing the "ground-breaking essay written by Evelyn P. Stevens in 1973". They also discuss use of the term by academicians such as Sally E. Romero, Julia M. Ramos-McKay, Lillian Comas-Diaz, and Luis Romero. In their book, Gil and Vazquez use it as applicable across a variety of Latino/a cultures. [2]

Critique of Stevens[edit]

Evelyn Stevens’ essay was very significant to this area of study. However, since its publication, her argument has been debated by other researchers and critics. Although her argument addresses marianismo in Latin America at large, many of the sources she uses mainly focus on Mexican culture, thus severely limiting her frame of reference. Also, she is criticized for implying that, despite other differences among various socioeconomic classes, the ideal woman's characteristics are ultimately the same across social classes. Her critics claim Stevens ignores socioeconomic factors, saying “her description of women as altruistic, selfless, passive, [and] morally pure” is inadequate.[4] There have been some responses in the literature to the concept of marianismo that assert that its model of/for women's behavior is very class-based. In other words, the idea that men do all the hard work, while women remain idle, on a pedestal is a life that rarely exists, particularly for the peasant, poor and working class women that make up the majority of Latin America women. As Gil and Vazquez remind us, "most of her [Stevens's] data came from middle class Mexican women."[2]

There are other criticisms of her work that accept her argument in part and others who reject the notion completely. Regardless, Stevens’ work has raised issues that anthropologists and other researchers cannot ignore.

Feminist perspective[edit]

Some feminists criticize the concept of marianismo, suggesting that it simply legitimizes the social conditions of women in Latin America by making it seem valid and normal. They also note that marianismo is often presented as everything machismo is not; therefore femaleness is put into “the realm of passivity, chastity, and self-sacrifice”.[5] They argue marianismo suggests that if a woman has a job outside of the home, her virtues and her husband’s machismo are put into question. Women are simply an addition to the male ego; their only identity is found in being a virgin, wife, and mother.

In the media[edit]

Very few studies on the role of marianismo in the media have been conducted. However, in more recent years, researchers are beginning to explore this cultural phenomenon. Researchers Jorge Villegas, Jennifer Lemanski and Carlos Valdez conducted a study on the portrayal of women in Mexican television commercials.


Very few studies on the role of marianismo in the media have been conducted. However, in more recent years, researchers are beginning to explore this cultural phenomenon. Researchers Jorge Villegas, Jennifer Lemanski and Carlos Valdez conducted a study on the portrayal of women in Mexican television commercials. Often women are portrayed as either those who adhere to the feminine ideal, and those who do not. These women are then categorized as good women and bad women, respectively.