katosvanidze18851907’s diary

知恵袋、okwaveで質問した回答したものをコピーして載せるだけのブログ。書いた文章は 自分の財産なので。つまりはこのブログは記録する倉庫の役割り。アクセス数やランキングは付録なので興味はない。物事、この世の深淵、本質、真理とは? 全ては知識と文章能力が解決してくれる 知識を付けて盲点を無くしていけば、。ゴールは現状の外に。 現状の外にゴールを作れば未来の記憶が作られるが、現状の内側にゴールを設定すれば、我々は過去にしばれる、過去 の延長線上を生きることに 過去からの脱するに未来に対してイメージ、臨場感を

アンダ ルイス(Ida Lewis )の業績、影響力、 利点欠点限界盲点とは?

アンダ ルイスとは?皆さんにとって、アンダ ルイスとは?


アンダ ルイスの業績、影響力、

利点欠点限界盲点とは?


日本、世界史、アメリカ史における

アンダ ルイスとは?


https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/アイダ・ルイス

アイダ・ルイス(Idawalley Zorada Lewis(-Wilson), 1842年2月25日 - 1911年10月24日)は、アメリカ合衆国史上最も有名な灯台守。当時女性が専門職を持つことが少なかった合衆国で、顕著な業績と存在感を示し、アメリカの英雄として有名人になった。

略歴[編集]

ロードアイランド州ニューポートに、4人兄妹の長女として生まれる。

  • 1855年(14歳)、ニューポートで1番泳ぎが巧いと評されていた。
  • 1857年(16歳)、ライムロック灯台(Lime Rock Light)の灯台守だった、父Hosea Lewis が発作のために倒れた後、仕事を実質的に継ぐ。灯台守に加え、毎日兄妹を学校へ船で送り迎えをしていた。
  • 1858年、近隣の家族4人の船が転覆した時に彼らを救出。
  • 1869年7月4日、ニューポート市民により、彼女に新しいボート(船名:the Rescue、マホガニー製)が贈られる。アイダは以降、独立記念日にボートに車輪を付けてパレードに参加した。
  • 灯台守としての活動が全国的に有名になり、当時の国内で最も普及していた出版物、Harper's Weekly、Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaperに掲載される。
  • 1869年合衆国第18代大統領ユリシーズ・S・グラント副大統領スカイラー・コルファクスは ライムロック灯台を訪れアイダと面会、ゴールド・ライフセービング勲章を授与する(同年、彼らを含め約9,000人が人気者になったアイダに会いにライムロック灯台を訪れる)。
  • 1870年コネチカット州出身のWilliam H. Wilson と結婚
  • 1879年、正式にライムロック灯台灯台守に任命された(父 Hosea Lewis は、倒れた後も亡くなる1872年まで正式な在任者であった。その後1872年1879年は、彼女の母が任命されていた)。給料は年間750ドル
  • 彼女は、寝る時も灯台の明かりが見えるようにベッドを配置していた。『ライムロック灯台の灯りは私の子供、それは私が眠っているときも私を必要としているの』("It is my child, and I know it needs me even if I sleep.")との言葉を残す。
  • 1911年10月24日(69歳)、勤務中に発作により死亡した。ニューポートの全てのがその夜、追悼の意を表しを鳴らし、街の全ての半旗になった。
  • 1,400人以上が、彼女の遺体を見る為に Thames Street Methodist Church に訪れた。

遺産[編集]

  • 彼女の後任者 Edward Jansen と妻の間に授けられた娘は、Ida Lewis Jansen と名付けられた。
  • 1924年連邦議会下院は、ライムロック灯台を、アイダ・ルイス・ライムロック灯台(Ida Lewis Lime Rock Light)に改名する件を可決した。
  • 1927年に自動化されるまで Edward Jansen は同灯台に勤務した。その後1963年に同灯台は閉鎖された。ただし現在でも、夏の間は臨時に点灯されることがある。
  • アイダ・ルイスのは、Common Ground Cemetery(ニューポート市)にある。
    • 墓銘 『アメリカの名誉ある最愛の人、ニューポート湾ライム・ロック灯台守、たくさんの友人により建立』
  • 自動化の翌年の1928年灯台はアイダ・ルイス・ヨットクラブになった。
  • 1955年合衆国沿岸警備隊ブイ管理船は、"Ida Lewis" と名付けられる。
  • 公式には39年の任期で18人の人命救助を行った。

参考文献[編集]

  • Adamson, Hans Christian. Keepers of the Lights. New York: Greenberg, 1955.
  • Bachand, Robert G. Northeast Lights: Lighthouses and Lightships, Rhode Island to Cape May, New Jersey. Norwalk, CT: Sea Sports Publications, 1989.
  • Brewerton, George D. Ida Lewis, The Heroine. Newport, Rhode Island: A.J. Ward, 1869.
  • Mary Louis Clifford & J. Candace Clifford. Women Who Kept the Lights: An Illustrated History of Female Lighthouse Keepers. Williamsburg, VA: Cypress Communications, 1993, pp. 90-98.
  • "Coast Guard crew to restore lighthouse keeper's grave." Newport Daily News, July 7, 2001.
  • DeWire, Elinor. Guardians of the Lights: The Men and Women of the U.S. Lighthouse Service. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1995.
  • Gleason, Sarah C. Kindly Lights: A History of the Lighthouses of Southern New England. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1991.
  • Harrington, Frances. "The Heroine of Lime Rock." Oceans, November 1965.
  • "Ida Lewis launched." Lighthouse Digest, February 1996.
  • "Ida Lewis, the Newport Heroine." Harper's Weekly, July 31, 1869.
  • Kochel, Kenneth G., updated and revised by Jeremy D'Entremont. America's Atlantic Coast Lighthouses: A Traveler's Guide. Wells, Maine: Lighthouse Digest, 2000.
  • Ida Lewis obituary, Boston Globe, September 14, 1932.
  • "Lighthouse bears her name." Providence Journal, September 6, 1965.
  • "The Lighthouse Heroine." Winthrop (MA) Sun, December 30, 1893.
  • Longo, Mildred Santille. Picture Postcard Views of Rhode Island Lighthouses and Beacons. Rhode Island Publications Society, 1990.
  • "Mrs. Salter, only woman now in U.S. Lighthouse Service, upholds traditions of her sister heroines who are gone." Boston Sunday Herald, September 11, 1932.
  • Petro, Pamela. The Newport and Narragansett Bay Book. Stockbridge, MA: Berkshire House Publishers, 1994.
  • Randolph, Norris. "Newport's Forgotten Heroine." Yankee, August 1959.
  • Snow, Edward Rowe. The Lighthouses of New England. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1973.
  • Snow, Edward Rowe. Women of the Sea. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1962.

参照[編集]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Lewis_(lighthouse_keeper)


Ida Lewis (lighthouse keeper)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ida Lewis

Idawalley Zorada Lewis (later Lewis-Wilson) (February 25, 1842 – October 24, 1911) was an American lighthouse keeper noted for her heroism in rescuing people from the sea.

Biography[edit]

Ida Lewis was born in Newport, Rhode Island, the oldest of four children of Captain Hosea Lewis of the Revenue Cutter Service. Her father was transferred to the Lighthouse Service and appointed keeper of Lime Rock Light on Lime Rock in Newport in 1854, taking his family to live on the rock in 1857.[1] When he had been at Lime Rock for less than four months, he had a stroke and became disabled. Ida expanded her domestic duties to include caring for him and a seriously ill sister and also, with her mother's assistance, tending the light: filling the lamp with oil at sundown and again at midnight, trimming the wick, polishing carbon off the reflectors, and extinguishing the light at dawn.

Since Lime Rock was completely surrounded by water, the only way to reach the mainland was by boat. By the age of 15 Ida had become known as the best swimmer in Newport. She rowed her younger siblings to school every weekday and fetched supplies from town as they were needed. She became very skilful at handling the heavy rowboat. An article in Harper's Weekly after Ida had rescued several people debated whether it was "feminine" for women to row boats, but concluded that none but a "donkey" would consider it "unfeminine" to save lives.

Ida and her mother tended the Lime Rock Light for her father from 1857 until 1873, when he died. Her mother was then appointed keeper, although Ida continued to do the keeper's work. By 1877, her mother's health was failing, leaving Ida with increased housekeeping and care-giving responsibilities. Her mother eventually died of cancer in 1887. Ida finally received the official appointment as keeper in 1879, largely through the efforts of an admirer, General Ambrose Everett Burnside, a Civil War hero who became a Rhode Island governor and United States senator. With a salary of $750 per year, Ida was for a time the highest-paid lighthouse keeper in the nation. The extra pay was given "in consideration of the remarkable services of Mrs. Wilson in the saving of lives".

Lewis made her first rescue in 1854, coming to the assistance of four men whose boat had capsized. She was 12 years old.[2]

Illustration of Ida Lewis rowing

Her most famous rescue occurred on March 29, 1869. Two soldiers, Sgt. James Adams and Pvt. John McLaughlin, were passing through Newport Harbor toward Fort Adams in a small boat, guided by a 14-year-old boy who claimed to know his way through the harbor. A snowstorm was churning the harbor's waters, and the boat overturned. The two soldiers clung to it, while the boy was lost in the icy water. Ida's mother saw the two in the water and called to Ida, who was suffering from a cold. Ida ran to her boat without taking the time to put on a coat or shoes. With the help of her younger brother, she was able to haul the two men into her boat and bring them to the lighthouse. One of them later gave a gold watch to Ida, and for her heroism she became the first woman to receive a gold Congressional medal for lifesaving. The soldiers at Fort Adams showed their appreciation by collecting $218 for Ida.

Because of her many rescues, Ida Lewis became the best-known lighthouse keeper of her day. During her 54 years on Lime Rock, she is credited with saving 18 lives,[3] although unofficial reports suggest the number may have been as high as 36. She kept no records of her lifesaving exploits. Ida's fame spread quickly after the 1869 rescue, for a reporter was sent from the New York Tribune to record her deeds. Articles also appeared in Harper's Weekly and Leslie's magazine among others. The Life Saving Benevolent Association of New York sent her a silver medal.[2] A parade was held in her honor in Newport on Independence Day, followed by the presentation of a sleek mahogany rowboat with red velvet cushions, gold braid around the gunwales, and gold-plated oarlocks. When she was 64, Ida became a life beneficiary of the Carnegie Hero Fund, receiving a monthly pension of $30.

On July 16, 1881, she was awarded the rare and prestigious Gold Lifesaving Medal from the United States government for her daring rescue on February 4, 1881, of two soldiers from Fort Adams who had fallen through the ice while attempting to return to the fort on foot.[4]

During her lifetime Ida Lewis was called "the Bravest Woman in America", and her exploits were detailed in the national press. She met President Ulysses S. Grant, Vice-President Schuyler Colfax, General William Tecumseh Sherman, and Admiral George Dewey, in addition to many of the wealthy and prominent people who summered in Newport.[5] Members of the Women's suffrage movement including Elizabeth Cady Stantoncame to visit her and used her as an example of the inherent strength of women.[6] At least two pieces of music were named for her: the Ida Lewis Waltz and the Rescue Polka Mazurka. Ida Lewis hats and scarves were sold.

Her father amused himself by counting the people who came to the island to see Ida: there were often a hundred a day, and in one summer there were 9,000. She also received numerous gifts, letters, and even marriage proposals. In 1870 she married Captain William Wilson of Black Rock, Connecticut, but they separated after two years. She spent most of her career alone at Lime Rock.

Ida made her last recorded rescue when she was 63. A friend was rowing out to the lighthouse, stood up in her boat, lost her balance, and fell into the water. Ida rowed out to her and hauled her aboard.

Lewis died of a stroke on October 24, 1911, at the age of 69.[3] The bells of all the vessels in Newport Harbor tolled for her that night, and flags were at half staff throughout Newport. More than 1,400 people viewed her body at the Thames Street Methodist Church. Among the crowd that gathered to pay its respects were keepers Charles Schoeneman of Newport Harbor Light, Charles Curtis of Rose Island Light, O. F. Kirby of Gull Rocks Light, and Edward Fogerty of the Brenton Reef lightship. The captain and crew of a local lifesaving station in Newport were also present. Ida Lewis was buried in the Common Burying Ground in a prominent location so her grave can be seen by passers by.

Legacy[edit]

In 1924 the Rhode Island legislature officially changed the name of Lime Rock to Ida Lewis Rock. The lighthouse service changed the name of the Lime Rock Lighthouse to the Ida Lewis Rock Lighthouse—the only such honor ever paid to a keeper in the United States. It is now the home of the Ida Lewis Yacht Club.[7]

In 1995 the United States Coast Guard named the first of a new class of buoy tenders for Ida Lewis. The USCGC Ida Lewis (WLM-551), the lead ship of the Keeper-class buoy tender, is currently stationed in Newport, Rhode Island.

The folk song "Lighthouse Keeper" by Neptune's Car was inspired by Lewis's experiences.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ Skomal, Lenore (2010). Lighthouse Keeper's Daughter: The Remarkable True Story Of American Heroine Ida Lewis (1st ed.). Washington DC: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 26. ISBN 9781461745808.
  2. Jump up to: a b hilaryparkinson (2015-03-24). "Ida Wilson Lewis, lighthouse keeper and fearless Federal worker"Prologue: Pieces of History. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
  3. Jump up to: a b "USCG: Frequently Asked Questions"www.uscg.mil. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
  4. Jump up ^ Ida Lewis-Wilson: Awarded 16 July 1881, U.S. Coast Guard Awards, November 17, 2014, retrieved October 22, 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ Mary Louise Clifford and Candace Clifford, Women Who Kept the Lights: An Illustrated History of Female Lighthouse Keepers, Alexandria: Cypress Communications, 2001, excerpted in About Ms. Ida Lewis, Ida Lewis Yacht Club, retrieved October 22, 2015.
  6. Jump up ^ Adler, Margaret C. (Spring 2014). "To the Rescue: Picturing Ida Lewis". Winterthur Portfolio48 (1): 75–104. JSTOR 10.1086/676321.
  7. Jump up ^ About ILYC, Ida Lewis Yacht Club, retrieved October 22, 2015.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lenore Skomal, The Keeper of Lime Rock, Philadelphia: Running Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7624-1309-3.

External links[edit]


Ida Lewis
Description de l'image IdaLewis.jpg.
Nom de naissanceIdawalley Zorada Lewis
Naissance
Décès (à 68 ans)
NationalitéAméricaine
Pays de résidenceDrapeau des États-Unis États-Unis
AscendantsCapitaine Hosea Lewis
ConjointCapitaine William Wilson

Idawalley Zorada Lewis, née le , morte le , est une gardienne de phare américaine, célèbre pour ses sauvetages en mer, qu'elle commence dès 1854, à l'âge de 12 ans.

Biographie[modifier | modifier le code]

Ida Lewis nait le  à Newport (Rhode Island) aux États-Unis. Elle est l'aînée de quatre enfants, dont le père est le capitaine Hosea Lewis, qui fait partie de l'United States Revenue Cutter Service. Celui-ci est transféré au service des phares (en) et nommé gardien du phare de la petite île de Lime Rock (en), à Newport en 1854. Il s'y installe avec sa famille en 1857 mais au bout d'à peine quatre mois, il est victime d'un accident vasculaire cérébral qui entraîne une paralysie. Outre les tâches ménagères, Ida et sa mère s'occupent des soins du père et d'une sœur, gravement malade également. Elles assurent le bon fonctionnement de la lanterne et son approvisionnement en huile au coucher du soleil et à minuit, jusqu'à l'extinction à l'aube.

Elle fait son premier sauvetage en 1854 et vient en aide à quatre hommes dont le bateau avait chaviré : elle est âgée de 12 ans1.

Lime Rock étant complètement entouré d'eau, la seule façon d'atteindre le continent est en bateau : à l'âge de 15 ans, Ida est reconnue comme étant la meilleure nageuse de Newport. Elle conduit ses frères et sœurs à l'école chaque jour de la semaine et récupère en ville les fournitures nécessaires. Elle devient très habile à manœuvrer la lourde chaloupe. Un article, paru dans Harper's Weekly, après qu'Ida ait sauvé plusieurs personnes, pose la question de savoir si le fait de ramer, pour une femme, est féminin, mais il conclut que seul un âne le considérerait comme non féminin, s'agissant de sauver des vies.

Dessin d'IDA LEWIS, lors d'un sauvetage (Ten American Girls from History 1917)

Ida et sa mère s'occupent du phare de Lime Rock de 1857 à 1873, jusqu'à ce que le père décède. La mère d'Ida est alors désignée comme gardienne du phare mais c'est Ida qui fait le travail. En 1877, la santé de sa mère décline et les responsabilités d'Ida augmentent. Sa mère meurt d'un cancer en 1877. Ida est alors désignée officiellement comme la gardienne du phare, en 1879, notamment grâce à Ambrose Burnside, un admirateur, général et héros de guerre, devenu gouverneur de Rhode Island et sénateur des États-Unis. Avec son salaire de 750 $ par an, elle est la gardienne de phare, la mieux payée du pays.

Son sauvetage le plus célèbre a lieu le . Deux militaires, le sergent James Adams et le soldat John McLaughlin, sont de passage à Newport et se rendent à Fort Adams dans un petit bateau, guidés par un garçon de 14 ans qui prétendait connaître son chemin à travers la baie. Une tempête de neige agite les eaux et le bateau se retourne. Les deux soldats s'y accrochent, tandis que le garçon se perd dans l'eau glacée. La mère d'Ida voit les deux hommes dans l'eau et appelle Ida, qui souffrait d'un rhume. Ida court à son bateau sans prendre le temps de mettre un manteau ou des chaussures. Avec l'aide de son frère cadet, elle arrive à transporter les deux hommes dans son bateau et les ramener au phare. L'un des deux hommes lui donne, plus tard, une montre en or et pour son héroïsme, elle devient la première femme à recevoir une médaille d'or du Congrès pour ce sauvetage. Les soldats de Fort Adams montrent leur reconnaissance en recueillant 218 $ pour Ida.

Suite à ses nombreux sauvetages, Ida Lewis devient la gardienne de phare, la plus connue de son époque. Durant ses 54 ans à Lime Rock, elle a sauvé 18 personnes2, bien que des rapports non officiels indiquent que le nombre s’élèverait à 36. Elle n'a gardé aucune trace de ses exploits. La renommée d'Ida se propage rapidement, après le sauvetage de 1869, au point qu'un journaliste du New-York Tribune est envoyé sur place. L'association des sauveteurs bénévoles de New York, lui envoient une médaille d'argent1. Un défilé a lieu en son honneur à New Port, le Jour de l'Indépendance, suivi de la présentation d'une élégante chaloupe en acajou, avec des coussins en velours rouge. Lorsqu'elle est âgée de 64 ans, elle devient bénéficiaire à vie du fonds Carnegie pour les héros (en), recevant une pension mensuelle de 30 $.

Héritage[modifier | modifier le code]

En 1924, le phare de Rhode Island est officiellement baptisé Ida Lewis Rock Light (en) : il s'agit du seul phare des États-Unis à rendre honneur à un gardien. Actuellement, il est le siège du Yacht Club Ida Lewis.

En 1995, la United States Coast Guard, baptise son premier baliseur Ida Lewis : l'USCGC Ida Lewis (WLM-551), Le USCGC Ida Lewis (WLM-551), le navire principal de classe Keeper cutter (en), à pour port d'attache Newport (Rhode Island).

La chanson Lighthouse Keeper de Neptune's Car est inspirée des vies d'Abbie Burgess (en), Ida Lewis et Katherine "Katie" Walker3.

Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code]

Pierre tombale d'Ida Lewis
  • (en) Lenore Skomal, The Keeper of Lime Rock : the remarkable true story of Ida Lewis, America's most celebrated lighthouse keeper, Philadelphie, Running Press, (ISBN 0-7624-1309-3)
  • (en) Marissa Moss et Andrea U'Ren, The bravest woman in America, Berkeley, Tricycle Press,  (ISBN 9781582463698)
  • (en) George Douglas Brewerton, Ida Lewis the heroine of Lime Rock, Newport, R.I., A.J. Ward,,  (OCLC 15596719)
  • (en) Lenore Skomal, The lighthouse keeper's daughter : the remarkable true story of American heroine Ida Lewis, Guilford, GPP,  (ISBN 9780762758807)
  • (en) Doris Licameli, Rowing to the rescue : the story of Ida Lewis, famous lighthouse heroine, Morrisville, Lulu Enterprises, Inc., (ISBN 9781847286680OCLC 77216141)

Références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. ↑ a et b (en) « Ida Wilson Lewis, lighthouse keeper and fearless Federal worker » [archive], sur le site Prologue: Pieces of History (consulté le 19 octobre 2016).
  2.  (en) « Idawalley Zorada Lewis (-Wilson), Keeper, USLHS » [archive], sur le site U.S. Coast Guard (consulté le 17 novembre 2016).
  3.  [vidéo] Lighthouse Keeper de Neptune's Car [archive] sur YouTube

Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Source de la traduction[modifier | modifier le code]