全体主義（ぜんたいしゅぎ、イタリア語: totalitarismo, 英: totalitarianism）とは、個人の全ては全体に従属すべきとする思想または政治体制の1つである。この体制を採用する国家は、通常1つの個人や党派または階級によって支配され、その権威には制限が無く、公私を問わず国民生活の全ての側面に対して可能な限り規制を加えるように努める。
Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible. A distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is an "elaborate ideology, a set of ideas that gives meaning and direction to the whole society".
The concept was first developed in the 1920s by the Weimar German jurist, and later Nazi academic, Carl Schmitt, and Italian fascists. Schmitt used the term, Totalstaat, in his influential work on the legal basis of an all-powerful state, The Concept of the Political (1927). The concept became prominent in Western political discourse as a concept that highlights similarities between Fascist states and the Soviet Union.
Women's rights in Saudi Arabia are limited in comparison to many of its neighbors. The World Economic Forum's 2016 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 141 out of 144 countries for gender parity, down from 134 out of 145 in 2015. The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) elected Saudi Arabia on the U.N. Commission on the Status of Women for 2018–2022.Women in Saudi Arabia constitute 13% of the country's native workforce as of 2015.
However, women's status has changed in recent decades. Women were previously forbidden from voting or being elected to political office, but in 2011 King Abdullah let women vote in the 2015 local elections, as well as to be appointed to the Consultative Assembly. There are more female university graduates in Saudi Arabia than male, and female literacy is estimated to be 91%, which while still lower than male literacy is far higher than it was 40 years ago. The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years.
Many conservative Saudi women do not support loosening traditional gender roles and restrictions, on the grounds that Saudi Arabia is the closest thing to an "ideal and pure Islamic nation," and under threat from "imported Western values".
Among the factors that define rights for women in Saudi are government laws, the Hanbali and Wahhabi interpretation of Sunni Islam, and traditional customs of the Arabian Peninsula. In 2017, King Salman ordered that women be allowed access to government services such as education and healthcare without the need of consent of her guardian.
サウジの男性後見システムを撤廃せよ ―― 女性と経済を抑え込む後見システムとは